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Nov 29
SmellyOldGamer.com relaunched.
I've relaunched my gaming website as a gaming/hobby blog. I'm focusing on how I paint and model for miniature wargaming.
Enjoy!
http://smellyoldgamer.com/
or
http://darkwarp.com/

Nov 29
Azure Relays, great problem solvers.
Have you everbeen faced with a number of system integrations that require your to securely communicate between servers in very different internal networks that did not expose public ip addresses for the servers?

This is certainly a problem that's been solved before. However, it's made much simpler with Microsoft's Windows Azure Service Bus Relays. If you know how to do WCF development, this is fairly straightforward to implement. It's really just a reverse proxy, just using technology and techniques a WCF developer is (hopefully) pretty familiar with already.

Here is MS's walkthrough : http://www.windowsazure.com/en-us/develop/net/how-to-guides/service-bus-relay/

Jan 18
Stop SOPA!!!
Needless to say, sign me up with those who want to stop the SOPA and PIPA bills. Both bills are heavy fisted attempts by Big Content to protect their intellectual property without any concern for the ramifications. 

Even if you strongly believe piracy is wrong (and I do), Congress's attempts to legislate technology to protect piracy have been ineffective at best and unconstitutional at worst. How we justify 100,000 USD per violation of copyright for a 0.99USD song under "no cruel and unsual punishment" is beyond me. How SOPA and PIPA won't produce both a chilling effect on free speech is also beyond.

More importantly, both bills CLEARLY violate the concept of Due Process. If you think this is minor, you should investigate some of the cases that have been brought under the old DMCA (Digital Millenium Copyright Act). Just the Righthaven fiasco should be a cautionary tale(and Righthaven at least had some justification for pursuing at least some of the cases, they just did it wrong). Even before DMCA, we've seen small websites (and bulletin boards before that) bullied by content owners into shutting off fan created content over copyright and other intellectual property concerns even though they clearly would fall under Fair Use. Software applications have been gutted  to comply with a content owners perception that it could potentially be used for pirating content. Now, some people think that prior to trial and with little review of the merits of a case, a site should be effectively shut down.

The sad part is that it's completely ineffective from a technical perspective. All that will happen is that the pirates will move on to other means of contacting one another whilst the legitimate Fair Users or accidental infringers get clobbered by content owners who have their nose out of joint. As the content owners won't be able to stop it with their current laws, they will pursue an even more draconian set of laws in another 5-10 years time.

But: think how the copyright trolls will use this! Instead of their quasi-legal extortion letter saying "pay us or we sue", it will say "pay us or we'll have your site taken off the internet". 

We've seen that there have been reductions in the Due Process violating provisions due to all of the pushback, but still, the idea that I would have to monitor every site that I link to in order to determine if it hosts violating content is nuts. What it means is that I will not be able to cite any references in any blog post for fear of the site I'm referring having some smattering of violating content. I not only need to check it before hand, but after as well. What does this mean for blogger, wordpress, tumblr, etc? All blog hosting websites would basically be put on notice that they need to monitor every single site that one of their users posts a link to. While we're at it, why not pass a law making restaurant guests liable for dining at a restaurant that buys its tomatoes from a distributor that buys from a farm that uses illegal immigrant labor. It's about the same thing. 

Anyway, there's others who have articulated this much more clearly than I have. I'd link to them or mention them, but that would be a bad idea in a SOPA world.

Nov 17
Migrating a bootable VHD to Fusion in Mac
I just got a new Macbook Pro for work use and wanted to move a windows image which I used for client work. The image was a bootable VHD file (like this) and that presented a couple of issues for a simple move.
First, the bootable VHD is not the same as the vhd file as used for Microsoft's virtual machine technologies (whether Virtual PC or HyperV). VHD just means "virtual hard disk", but that does not mean the machine image contained within that disk is built for being run as a guest inside another machine. The bootable VHD machine is configured to be run as it's own machine, it's just running via a packaged up file sitting inside of another hard drive partition. The result is you cannot use VMWare Fusion's Import feature to convert this disk from a VHD to a VMWare image.
What you could do is use Fusion's "Migrate Your PC" option to migrate the machine, with a bootable VHD there may be a gotcha. The gotcha is that the Migration option will automatically try to import the host (naked) hard drive in addition to the VHD image if it's connected to your VHD machine. Your VHD image will not be big enough to hold it's parent hard drive! I suppose you could detach the drive, but doing so would require to alter the original machine. That doesn't seem such a good idea if you want to go back to that machine, even to keep as a back up.
What you can do is run the VMWare Standalone Converter from within the Windows machine you're trying to move over. This will allow you to tell it to not try to package up any drives you don't want. It also will let you put the packages elsewhere, not force you to fit it inside of the VHD's space. This creates the virtual machine for you, ready to run in just about any of VMWare's products. You can then simply copy the files over to your mac and then launch it in fusion.
    A couple of gotchas that may arise at this point:
  1. If you did not take the drive with your boot launcher info, you will need your windows CDs (or isos if it's from MSDN) to run a quick Windows Repair to fix the boot info inside the new VM. It's pretty painless, just follow the instructions.
  2. This is a new machine, you may need to run windows or office activation again depending on original activation requirements. OEM installs of windows will probably give you grief, but it's unlikely you were running that from a VHD to begin with.
Overall, once I figured out the need to run the stand alone converter, this was a pretty easy process. But, it did take a bit of noodling and googling to figure out.
Sep 07
A new little toy out there... Wordle
A new little toy out there... Wordle. Feed it some text (or a blog) and it creates a word cloud for you.

Apparently I want to Just Get Work Going People.

Wordle: JustGetWorkGoingPeople

Clicking through may cause issues in some browsers, seems to work fine in Opera though.
Aug 05
A dice tool for 7th Sea.
I've put the first version of dice roller for 7th Sea up on my gaming related site, smellyoldgamer.com. As of right now, smellyoldgamer is still just an alias for jimleo.com, so you can just use jimleo.com as the root too. The full address to the dice roller is http://www.smellyoldgamer.com/sog/7thSea.html.

I've built it to play nice with keyboard, mouse, and touch displays, so please check out. Notes on keyboard use are on the bottom. 

I kept the page completely self contained, so you can just save it and use it offline. It doesn't save anything, post it back to the server, or anything like that. It's completely intended to be locally run because everywhere your device goes may not have an internet connection. Simply save it as an html file and load it up in your browser for later. 

A possible enhancement over today's version would be to keep track of the last x number of rolls so you wouldn't need to reenter them.

I've tested it using the major browsers, and as usual, IE is the only one annoying the snot out of me. There's a bit of page "dancing" going on that causes one of the sections to move a bit unexpectedly that I'm still working on. Firefox seemed to be the pickiest and managed to find bugs in markup that the other browsers compensated for.
Mar 17
A Few Very Useful Tools–Mar 2011
Wow, I missed a YEAR’s worth of A Few Very Useful Tools. You are now entitled to your subscription fee back. Given I pay most of you to read this, you owe me money.
[Warning, philosophy ahead]
Seriously though, a year ago I was running out of things to post, so it was time to let it rest for a little while. There’s really only so much you can use well enough to get a good idea of whether it’s worth using. Lots of reviews represent 5-10 hours of use of a product (if that) and often come down to what I euphemistically call “counting cup holders”. Feature count doesn’t matter if those features aren’t well implemented. I would much rather use a bunch of small utilities that did one thing well than one mega-app that did it all but not very well. Granted, there are times where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, but that requires true integration.
Without further ado, some gems from the last year.
  • Git – Source control the way it should be (I believe I heard that from Linus Torvalds). Most of all, branching and merging are so easy you stop thinking about it. You also can ship changes directly to someone else without creating ugly patches/shelves and without sending it through the central server. Why? Git is distributed from day one. A central repository is a decision you make as a project team, not requirement of the software. You commit to a local repository, then merge that repository with a central or with your peers. Git is much more a command line tool, graphic tools are lacking. They’re available, just lacking. Mercurial is a close second and has better graphical tool support if you’re on windows, but Git’s the king right now in terms of functionality.
  • Resharper – Ok, it was on my Dishonorable Mentions list a year or so ago. That said, I think they’ve improved it, but I’ve also found that on a “real” machine it rocks. That said, a “real” machine is a Windows 7 box with min 4GB ram and a beefy CPU. An SSD and 6GB of ram makes for a nice experience with “R#”. This configuration will neuter my main complaint from a year ago, which was performance. The refactoring tools, the test running tools, and the various navigation tools make for a completely different world of development.
  • Remote Desktop Connection– Silly as it sounds, this little tool is just what the doctor ordered if you have to work with multiple machines. I’ve stopped trying to manage multiple machines with a Keyboard-Video-Mouse switch. Using Remote Desktop, you can just open a window on one machine into another machine. It is not screen sharing. It let’s you open another desktop as if you were another user logged into the system (note number of users is limited). As far as I know, there’s nothing like this for mac, although there is for Linux. XRDP let’s you pull this off in a Linux world and share between the two as well! Mac doesn’t get to play, sorry.
  • Moq – Unit testing is the sign of a professional developer. It’s also the sign of a sane developer. Moq is a mocking framework that makes unit testing in C# absolute cake. I would favor this over any pre-VS2008 frameworks as it makes extensive use of lambdas to make mocking out dependent classes absolutely easy. Of all the things I can say about it, the best one is probably this: just about anything I’ve thought would be hard to mock has already had a way to do it in Moq. You really don’t need much more than the Quick Start page for this, trust me.
Well, that’s it. Four stellar tools in one year, only two of which I’d say are new-to-me in the year. Back to the grind…
Feb 02
DateTime is Dead, Long Live DateTimeOffset!
Ok, maybe I’m late to the presses with this one, but given that no one I’ve talked to recently knows about this, I think it’s worthy of more press…

The .Net DateTime structure is a nice handy structure that we basically can’t escape. Funny thing about users, they have a tendency to want to know when they did something, when they should do something, and how far overdue it is when they didn’t do it.

The problem with .Net’s DateTime is the lack of time zone information in the structure. Believe it or not. Yeah, really.

In .Net 1, we had no indicator of what time zone it was for. In .Net 2, they introduced the notion of “kind”, but that was limited to indicating “Local”, “UTC” (i.e. GMT or Zulu), and “Unspecified”. Even with .Net 2, this led to most of us just taking the convention of immediately converting everything to UTC. Unfortunately, that led to more than one bug when someone forgot to convert or double converted (or triple or quadruple or…).

MS’s answer was always that DateTime was a 64 bit structure that they used something like 62 bits for it. They were able to add in the “kind” by using the extra 2 bits, but that only allows for 4 possible values if you recall your bitwise arithmetic (00, 01, 10, 11). Hence, Local(10), UTC(01), Unspecified (00). Maybe you’re thinking that “we only need 24”, but that doesn’t account for India or Newfoundland (something + .5 hours offset) and leaves you scratching your head at what to do with daylight savings time.

Worse, SQL Server’s DateTime only stored the date and time with no idea on time zone. However, there at least we could just say “server time” and be done with it.

This is manageable and usually not too much of a problem in self contained systems. Where it becomes painful is in situations where you need to serialize data and send it somewhere else. Then you really need to worry about that time zone and it gets really goofy when you’re working with datasets. Once I get over the psychological trauma of dealing with datasets and time zones, I might be able to blog about that.

Since VS2008/.Net 3.5 and SQL 2008, we’ve had a new and vastly improved way of handling this. This is called DateTimeOffset. Unfortunately, the name seems to throw everyone off. DateTimeOffset does not just store the offset (I.e. –5 from UTC), it stores the entire date time (2/2/2011 9:56:12 PM -05:00). Now,the interesting part is that this takes a TimeSpan, so you really can make this as flexible as you want it. TimeZoneInfo helps you with finding timezones and applying the various rules such as daylight savings time. Both just plain work with SQL server.

Short of it is that I plan on forgetting all about DateTime and only using DateTimeOffset from now on. Now I’ll always know what time zone I meant and not have to figure out what rules I need to apply to get it into local time.

Once I figure out the gotchas, I’ll relay those too. Winking smile

See:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.datetimeoffset.aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.timezoneinfo.aspx
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.timezone.aspx
Mar 08
Rescuing yourself...
Lately I've been blogging about the dimensions software project failure and what kinds of personalities you see in projects that have failed or are about to fail. Now, I'm the kind of person that says you need to find the negative to fix the negative, so I'm not a pessimist as much as a tinker. Everything we do can be done better than we're doing it now. That doesn't mean we should try to be totally perfect, just that we should be better than last time.

I feel that I need to offer up a little disclaimer before we go any further: Discussing project health and management is very difficult to do with some co workers and bosses. Please go careful. Charging ahead convinced that you are right is likely to only end badly. Open ears lead to persuasiveness. Closed ears lead to a pink slip. Reading body language is just as important.

The Roads We're On

I've seen projects that were successful all the way through. Any hiccups were just bumps on the road and even freshly laid pavement's going to have a bump or two. Then there's driving in NYC... you manage to get through, but the going is rough and suicidal taxi drivers seem like they are trying to ram you into the East River. These are those projects that seem to succeed in spite of themselves. Other times, you feel like Roscoe P Coltrain in a Dukes of Hazzard episode... you just know you're not going to make the jump over the creek yet you try because if you don't Boss Hogg is going to tear into you. These are the projects that are going and going, but everyone knows what's coming and yet people keep pushing for whatever reason until finally the plug is pulled and you're all scrambling to not be the one who gets to be one of the ones canned.

If life were simple, you'd know which type of project you were on from the get go. If it was all going well, you'd happily keep with it til the end and pat yourself on the back. If it was rough, but survivable, you might stick it through figuring you might get some kudos for pulling it off.  In reality, projects rarely stay on the same footing, but you rarely see it trend upwards. Either a project is good all the way through, or it just gets steadily worse. Call it project entropy... unless something else influences it, it tends to degrade over time. However, if we understand what's going on and keep a higher level view of what's going on, we might be able to act to correct it.

What goes wrong?

Phaser Burns

This downhill trend of projects is something I 've seen tend to happen in phased projects. During phase 1, you're primarily focused on getting something done. Proving the basic premise, getting a rough architecture mapped out and executing on the first set of use cases/user stories/whatever you call it.  This tends to be busy, but the atmosphere isn't uptight and things tend to go ok. Phase 2 is where trouble begins. Brooks calls  it "the Second System Effect" but I think there's maybe more to it. Please go read Mythical Man Month. It may not be spot on all the time, but the observations are still often valid 30+ years later. His main point in Second System Effect, and I pretty much agree with it, is that everything that was highly desirable but not mandatory got cut out for version/phase 1. Unsurprisingly enough, phase 1 goes reasonably well and delivers on time. In version/phase 2, there's a tendency to pull in far more than can be accomplished and failure mode starts to set in. What was once a great example of how to develop software now becomes a boondoggle.

A few things contribute to this. Obviously, biting off more than you can chew is a huge contributor. But how exactly does that happen? We're all intelligent adults and most of us aren't too terribly masochistic. Thus, we can cut out the overt psychological oddities and focus on more subtle issues.

The Inevitable Gold Plating - Gold plating is of course a major curse in software development in general. It tends to be at its worst in phase 2. All the 'nifty stuff we didn't have time for' now is in scope and the laser like focus you had in phase 1 diffuses as every 'brilliant' idea someone had starts to get to be a must have. In reality, business value's not there, but resume stacking is.


Good Old 80/20 - Quite simply, there's a subtle mental push that everyone feels even coming from within themselves. In phase 1, where your focus was on what was an absolute must have, you probably were cutting edge cases left and right. This leaves phase 2 with an incredible backlog of 80/20 ruled features. You know the 80/20 rule: 80% of the features are done with 20% of the work and 20% of the features take 80% of the work. Yeah, its just nice round numbers, but it communicates the point... edge cases often consume far more time than the main features yielding a low return on time invested. Contributing to this is that subtle mental push I referred to. Let's call it the Feature Counting Effect. This is brutally simple and goes like this: "In phase 1, we were able to deliver 20 features. Therefore, in phase 2, accounting for variability, we can plan on at least 15 features." Alternately, you'll think "you've learned some lessons" and instead plan for 25 or 30.


Go read that bit about the 80/20 rule again... if that's true you should only be planning FOUR features! After all, you've 80/20 ruled out some hard, but still pretty important, features. Go ahead, tell that to the boss and let me know how it works out... Of course you'll have to use your personal email address for me to reply to you because after they can your rear end, I won't be able to use your corporate email.


Cheaters Get Caught - Little known... err... widely known fact: No software project gets done without a compromise or three hundred along the way. Ok, calling it cheating is harsh, but the reality is that very often, to get past today, you don't have time to polish everything up to the point that you're really happy with it and you know it's going to come round to bite you. Sometimes, this turns out to be Gold Plating and YAGNI. But, almost always, there turns out to be a few features that have turned into dead ends in terms of being able to be extended to accomodate new functionality and you'll have to re-work them. Ok, this often occurs irrespective of what phase of development you are in. However, it's more likely to become an issue when new requirements and scope come into play. At any rate, we should always be willing to refactor to improve the internal quality of our code. Sometimes, it's just a lot more expensive and a lot less optional than others. All of this adds to the investment you need to make in phase 2... the larger the amount of code you have and the more users of the system, the more it costs to make any changes. (One of the prime drivers for refactoring in the first place... clean your junk up).

Your Boss's Boss (Political Commitments) - Let's face it, external commitments get made. Sometimes, to get agreement to go ahead with phase 1, the Boss needs to tell the Big Boss that he's going to get a feature in phase 2. Sometimes it's not Big Boss, but the Other Sponsor, etc. Anyway, there's a reason sometimes that 'not quite mandatory, but we better get it'  feature is pushed out to phase 2: it's hard! Or, it's really not a good return on investment. The only value is because someone with a lot of weight to throw around wants it and this is going to drain time away from other looked for features in phase 2. At any rate, the premise here is that sometimes phase 2 ends up 'oversold' before phase 1 is hardly under way. Said another way: phase 2 is already doomed while phase 1 is still a long way from even being code complete let alone tested and shipped. This is all because the idea that "we'll deliver it in phase 2" was the convenient answer to anything that couldn't get put into phase 1 leading to significant overselling. Been there, done that, now you're reading my novel.

Piling on the "Help" - When phase 1 is seen as primarily exploratory, the temptation of the Bosses to throw more people into the mix can become irresistible. Surely, we can accelerate development by throwing more bodies at the keyboards, right? This what I call "World War I" methodology. It is this sort of thinking: if you have to cross an empty field with machine guns at the other end, then obviously the best way is to get as many people to cross the field at once hoping there will be too many targets. Needless to say, it didn't work in WWI and it doesn't work in software development. Sure, there are times to use more people, but I've not seen too many cases where growing the team rapidly works once the project is in flight.

All analogies aside, what happens is that in phase 1, you've usually got a small team where communication, knowledge sharing, group design, etc all happen naturally. During this time, people settle into roles and everyone knows who knows what. The team gets to know one another and start to achieve some level of that nirvana of not needing to talk to one another to know what they will do as a group next (I did say some level). Now, double the team. This is putting new wine in an old wine skin... it will not work. All those connections that have been forged over time will be broken.

Furthermore, I don't care how much time you waste on documentation. There will always be bits of the system that will primarily be stuck in the head or heads of the team. I might be able to document the system I built to the point that when there is a bug, some random person can read the document, figure out where the bug is and fix it. But, take the same random person and ask them to add a new feature. Sure, they can do it, but they will do it by integrating their brand new code into the system. They will not know the 'tweak this, extend that, refactor over there' that will get it done in the context of the system in a fraction of the time. Sure, over time, they will get it. I'm just saying it's foolish to think they'll get there quickly.

It Was All Bad

Sometimes, it's not a downward spiral. It's not even a slippery slope. It always is bad and that's all there is to it. You've probably already decided that the reasons to tough it out exceed the reasons to bail out and are going to ride this horse for what it's worth.  But, what's going on here? We're all intelligent adults and most of us aren't too terribly masochistic... wait, I'm repeating myself. 

Anyway, usually, you'll see the same factors creep in while you're still in phase 1 or whatever you call it that you see in phase 2+ as factors that doom you. Certainly, over commitment is a problem anytime you run into as is Gold Plating and other activities that don't add value. So, we can put all those reasons on the list. 

Above that, there's a few other issues that can come into play.

Analysis Paralysis - When you get so wrapped up in thinking about the problem, you over look the truth in the old cliche "the best is the enemy of good enough". This is so classic, I'm not even talking about it any further here. Go here instead. 

This Project That is too Important to Fail - If ever you hear those words about a project you're on, run. Don't walk. RUN! "This project is too important to fail" is a code for "Paranoia, Sloppiness and/or Egotism will cause us to make one bad decision after another." Seriously, I think I've seen at least three projects fall into this category. The project is "mission critical", so no resource will be spared so when there's the inevitable hiccup: the meetings that follow will distract the team and suck away crucial resources. Furthermore, inevitably, "momentum" and "positive attitude" start to take over and it's almost eerie how the decision making process begins to cave in. Add in all the other factors, and you're playing jenga on top of only one block. It's not the importance of the project that causes it to fail as much as the fear of failure. Basically,  no one wants to sound like the one that is being negative and contradicting leadership or take on the political heavyweights. So, the small problems grow and grow until they consume the project, and the result is inevitable: Projects that are too important to fail usually do.

Everyone Wants In - These projects often also are the ones "too important to fail." Guess the story here: It's important so lots of people want in on the action. It's going to make the careers of people who are involved, so the proverbial wood work is working overtime. Everyone who can fabricate a reason to be on the project or better yet, 'advising' the project is there. The kindest way of looking at it is that you run into the Piling on the "Help" issue. The unkind way of looking at it (and more true) is that many (not all, or even most) are assessing their political/advancement prospects far more than their actual skill and contribution. At best, they are dead weight. At worst, they aren't content to follow the leader and want to be the top dog. I can't complain too much about someone who is making a full contribution even though their motivations may be bad. What causes problems is when they spend more time on their ambitions than the team and the project. 

Now, teamwork really just comes down to mutual interest. Altruism rarely factors in for most people. We all are on a given project because it benefits us to do so. However, when someone is only on the project to reap and cares little for sowing, it's now a problem. What really becomes a problem is when someone's idea of reaping is not even letting the crops grow! Now, it's common to see large, important projects have some level of observer/adviser appointed by senior management to be their eyes and ears. That's ok, if a pain. But when someone places themselves in the role and refuses to budge, you now have a problem. This is the kind of person that makes Everyone Wants In projects bad. They don't contribute, but they sure make noise. When they start degrading other people's ideas simply because they aren't their own, the project is all but doomed. Avoid these folks, and Everyone Want In may not be all that bad. Presumably, it means you get to pick the most talented people available. However, if the talent selection process fails to weed out those who are here to take but not give, it's trouble.

Solving All the World's Problems - Ok, realistically, no one starts up a project thinking it will solve all the world's problems. However, quite often, the project's goals are overextended before it even begins. Honestly? Every project probable has more ambition than it's going to actually deliver on. It really only becomes a problem when the level of ambition turns into expectations that will not be satisfied. One way I've seen this manifest on several occasions is when what I like to call "false reuse" occurs. This happens when you have two or more stakeholders who describe their problem statements in very similar terms. In short order, the impression that everyone's needs can be satisfied with one project begins to get stuck in everyone's heads. Unfortunately, their problem statements may have been "I need to be able to produce a document I can print". They miss out that whole bit about what the document is and you end up trying to build a spread sheet and word processor all at once. We also run into this idea of "false reuse" at a code level, but it's a lot less damaging (still bad though).

We Can Solve Our Own Problems - This one is may be the worst. On one hand, the team may be facing an issue that it can't resolve by itself, but keeps trying to resolve itself. On the other hand, the team may be asking for help, but for whatever reason, the message never makes it out. I identified this in Faces of Failure as the "All Mouth, No Ears" type. There's a project manager who has sold the higher ups on a vision, a time line, a budget, whatever. But, reality and vision aren't lining up and they won't take the message out. Frustratingly enough, when I've run into this in the past I've also seen instances where the higher ups would have been happy to hear about the problem and readjust expectations! The project ends up dying because someone without the brass to look the Big Boss in the eye and say "it's not going to plan" early is in between the team and the ultimate decision maker (this isn't always the Project Manager, they are just in the role where it's easiest to do this). 

Of course, if you are the project manager, you pretty much are going to get blamed anyway. Avoid the failure if you can and so read on. Keep in mind I'm not really writing towards PMs, I'm writing towards the everyone involved in software projects which by shear dint of percentages is mostly the developers, testers, implementers, etc.

Throw Yourself a Life Line... or... Go Down Guns Blazing

So, another long article and I've managed to talk mostly about failing again. Wasn't this one supposed to be "Rescuing Yourself?"

Oh yeah.

You see, it doesn't have to be a downward spiral. On occasion, I've seen a project rescued. So what do you do when you find yourself in the middle of a project that is dying? Or, what was good starts to become bad?

Don't Go There - I've never seen a project where the team worked well together (at that nirvana of knowing what to do together often without discussing it) fail. Note, that is my experience,  I'm sure someone will contradict me. However, I've seen projects where the team that worked well together got split apart by all those other factors creeping in. Working well today is no sign of working well tomorrow. In general though, always keep checking the pulse. It's a truism, but it's easier to solve a problem when it's still small. But, that's not really the answer you were looking for, was it? You're already in failure mode, which leads me to:

Don't just do something, stand there! -  That's the old HazMat advice and poking around the interwebs it looks like someone wrote a management book to that effect. I haven't read it and so can't recommend/endorse it.  Anyway, if things are looking grim, first thing is to ask yourself "Why?" Look around for some of the factors I've discussed in this series. Some of them have obvious answers. Other's aren't so obvious. But, you need to understand the cause before you solve the problems.

Talk! - I wrote about the Complainer in the post on the Faces of Failure. You don't want to just complain, but you do want to open a dialog with whomever you can. Ideally, you get everyone involved. Often, this won't work. You may have an "All Mouth, No Ears" somewhere in the chain of command. You may have a Pacifist who doesn't want to see conflict, or a Warrior who is spoiling for anything to fight about. But, for the most part, you may be surprised to find out that even if others aren't seeing what you're seeing per se, they really want to talk about it. Lunch is the best team building exercise on the planet.

Blow up the Dam - A bit the opposite of "Don't just do something, stand there". Sometimes, you just need to stop talking and do something! You've ended up in a situation where for whatever reason, the project is just gaining any ground. Once you've identified an impediment or two, get rid of it. The larger the project, the more likely you are to have needless bureaucracy (see Everybody Wants In). Do what you can to get rid of it. Also applies to Analysis Paralysis. Sometimes, the best way to solve the problem is to start writing some code.

Use People Effectively - Outside of obvious things like not engaging people in useless tasks, think of more creative solutions when you need more people. Rather than adding yet another coder, you may need someone just to manage the build process and deployments to staging. You may be surprised how much time this eats up. Rather than having it take 10% of 10 people's days, have it take 100% of one person's day (ok, the math rarely adds up so evenly, you get the point though).

Be Formal Enough - A myth of Agile Software Development is that there is no documentation in an Agile project. The reality is that the Agile Manifesto says only that we should value Working software over comprehensive documentation. You are seriously misreading the Manifesto if you take that to mean no documentation. One of my Rules Regarding Everything is that "the more people you have, the more formal you need to be". In short, the more people you have, the more you need of things like documentation, task tracking, etc. Add distance into the equation, and it only goes up. Trying to substitue email and Excel for proper tracking doesn't scale, and trying to keep it all in people's heads is just begging for trouble if nothing else. In short, not adding a little formality can actually cause you to do more  writing.

All Requirements Are Subject To Change - Seriously. Work on understanding needs not requirements. Lots of times, someone put a requirement down because they were trying to envision a way of solving the problem. If you have an easier, cheaper, or better way, talk to them, and...


Above All, Chutzpah - I have to throw some Yiddish in somewhere, don't I? After all, I grew up in the Borscht Belt. Anyway, Chutzpah is simply "audacity".

Without courage, you are just saying "walk over me". Many failed projects are savable, but someone doesn't stand up to say "enough". If you're the developer and all you do is say "yes I can do that, yes I can do that, yes I can do that." Don't be surprised when you can't do it anymore as work piles up. Meanwhile, you're only transmitting the message "I have more capacity." If you don't have capacity, if you have to work lot of overtime to get it done, SAY SO! This is probably a separate article by itself, but people can work O/T only so much before they melt down mentally.

If you see there are other misbehaviors/malfunctions in the team, you need to step up to the team and constructively take on the issues. If external influences are driving the issues, you need to start talking up the food chain. I've seen it happen many times that people just didn't know how complex etc something was that they were asking for. When I've traced the requirement back to the source (this can take some fighting believe it or not), its very often very negotiable. Talk and be courageous!

Being courageous is not being pigheaded and it certainly isn't being a cowboy. You need to listen to others, be ready to admit you're wrong, etc. However, while I say it's not being a cowboy, it may take some creativity. For example: sometimes your problems are processes that don't make any sense for what you're doing on this project. I've generally been successful by complying, but isolating the impact of those processes on day to day activities. Showing compliance in the battles you can't win also helps you in the battles that you can win. If folks think you're reasonable, they're more likely to listen when you say something is a problem.


Keep Your Skills Sharp, Soft And Broad (Ready to Relocate?) - All statements about courage etc aside... if you have a sense of project failure looming, you better load up the resume machine. You probably don't know what will happen in the end. Most software folks I know who have a hard time getting reemployed have let themselves get over specialized. Keep your skills broad, not just all technical. I've also found being ready to relocate helps a lot, but isn't practical for everyone. Also, keep in mind that changing jobs/projects isn't always the same as leaving the company! One more reason to be courageous, but level headed.

Anyway, this ran a LOT longer than I thought it would. As usually, probably 30 typos that I'll fix tomorrow or something. Adios!
Mar 05
Faces of Failure
My last post discussed what I called "Dimensions of Failure". At the end of that post, I promised I'd look into some causes of failure this time. Unlike the last post which drew heavily on knowledge I'd accumulated from other authors in addition to seeing how things played out in real life, this one will draw mostly on those real life experiences.

It really needs to be said: Most software projects do not fail for reasons related to technology (please notice the use of the qualifier "Most"). Most fail for other reasons, those reasons are either a failure to understand the real nature of the need that is driving the project in the first place, or people issues. I'm going to look more at the people aspect this time around.

These may be machines we work on, but software development is a craft. There's nothing scientific about it at all. It is not created by artists, but rather artisans. I've ceased thinking of myself as an engineer (regardless of job titles), an architect (blah), an analyst (that's a job function, not a job position), and certainly not a manager (that sound was me running screaming out of the room). I am a creator of software.

I say that because the impact of the people that you have on a project is critical to the outcome of the project. Understanding what kinds of people you have is also critical. You may have had 3 really super developers last time, this time you have 5 wet behind the ears college grads. Last time you had some real passive aggressive types, this time you have people who are willing to fight to the last over any point. Without understanding the capabilities and personalities you have, you will operate far less efficiently. When a project begins failing, the personality types of the people on that project will dictate how they contribute to that failure. Usually, the very strengths that make them an asset when things are going well also dictate how they will be a detriment when things are failing. So, what kinds of people do you have on a failing project (again, from what I've seen)?

The Hero

If you just had three more people like the Hero, you'd be successful, right? If it's hyper-critical, if it looks hard, you give it to the Hero. The Hero has probably been around the project the longest, knows exactly what to do, gets it done quickly, etc.

The problem with the Hero in failure mode is precisely the fact that everyone starts leaning on him or her. This turns into a situation where Hero can't keep up to all of the demands. The situation is further exacerbated by the Hero becoming more and more intimate with the inner workings of the application while everyone else becomes less and less intimate because you're leaning so heavily on the Hero to do anything. You need the Hero knowledge sharing, mentoring, and driving, not being isolated to "just get things done".

Needless to say, the Hero becomes a high risk for getting another job at exactly the worst possible time, or turning into the Burn Out, Lone Wolf etc. Anyway you slice it, the Hero is an asset, so really, addressing the negative aspects of the Hero consists of getting the project back on track. Of course, that may not be possible. If that's the case, guard the Hero against slipping into one of the more dangerous types.

The Martyr

Related to the Hero, and perilously close to being a Wannabe Hero is the Martyr. The Martyr wants to be a Hero, but unlike the Wannabe Hero, isn't actually out and out destructive. The problem with the Martyr is they are willing to grind themselves (any anyone else willing to join them) into the ground to get things done. They put in long hours even when not needed. They volunteer for the worst tasks. They are the ones on the plane to Chicago in January and so on. 

They are close to being the Hero, but they don't have the skills and/or knowledge of the application to quite make it to Hero status. Meanwhile, the long hours, the constant throwing themselves in front of the bus "for the team's sake" exacts a toll. Inevitably the quality  of work suffers because they are tired and if you're lucky, they turn into a Burn Out. If you're not lucky, they turn into the Wannabe Hero.

Often, building trust with the Martyr can help them to get out of the habit of killing themselves. If you can show them that they can be appreciated for doing a more normal level of work, then they'll cut it out. Sometimes, that's not enough though because this really is part of their make up. In that case, I don't have an answer for you other than to try to understand their motivations.

The Wannabe Hero

The Wannabe Hero is pure evil. The things that make someone a Wannabe Hero are not at all strengths. They are selfishness, ambition and unmerited pride personified. The Wannabe Hero is the person who appears to be a Hero, or at least a Martyr to everyone but anyone who has to get intimate with the work they do. The work they do is pure garbage, causes more problems than it solves, and yet they get credit for a "wonderful job" and "working hard". 

All to often, the reason they are "working hard" is because they are incompetent or mentally lazy. They are making mistakes and having to put in long hours to make up for it. Hang around the software business and you'll hear a story similar to this over and over again...

"I joined a new company where everyone talked about so and so and how wonderful so and so was. Whenever something broke, so and so knew just how to fix it. So and so put in long hours and was the darling of management."
"After looking at the work so and so did, I realized that all of the problems were caused by so and so. Within two weeks, I was able to straighten out almost all of the issues. Of course, I never got so much as a pat on the back for it, but I also slept at night and got weekends off."

Sometimes, you get a Wannabe Hero out of the person who was once the Hero because they got overwhelmed and pride got in the way. They couldn't keep up, but the promotions, bonuses, etc kept coming until the Peter Principle reigned supreme again. They don't know the way out without being looked on as failures, so they end up in a death spiral.

If you can catch the Wannabe Hero early enough, then you can probably provide a soft landing for them and get them out of the death spiral. Otherwise, you're going to end up having to "repurpose" them or flat out get rid of them. In short, avoid the Peter Principle, and the Wannabe Hero usually isn't an issue.

The Lone Wolf

The Lone Wolf was often a Hero at some point. Now, they are afraid of letting their work depend on anyone else, so they do it all. The main problems with the Lone Wolf is they never mentor, they want nothing to do with any kind of meeting or status reports, and after a while, no one really knows what they are doing. The Lone Wolf is a particular breed of Hero, Wannabe Hero, or Martyr in all reality. The main thing that sets them apart is the fact that they are really good at working by themselves and very bad at working with others. They kill projects because no one knows what's going on, but are relying on them anyway. Or they kill projects because they don't work with anyone else, so they only integrate their stuff at the last minute.

Force them into the light. They will either bail on you or get it together and work with the team. But, don't expect it to be overnight in many cases, so don't try to go too fast with the lightbulb. If they are a Lone Wolf because in real life they are a loner, it's going to be a slow process and you really are just looking for them to be communicative. If they are a Lone Wolf because of trust issues, work on the trust issues. If you find yourself a Lone Wolf, ask yourself why? Really, most people don't suck, and if you think you are that good, let me tell you, most of the really good people I've met are really humble as well.

The Complainer
It sucks. Whatever it is, it sucks. You know that meeting we had yesterday? It sucked. You know the team dinner we're supposed to have tomorrow night? It sucks. 

The new tools? They suck. The PCs we have? They suck. 

You get the drift. The Complainer can't see the silver lining in anything. They destroy morale so quickly that they turn everyone else into Complainers or Burn Outs. When you're particularly unlucky, the Complainer is also a Warrior, but usually they're more passive-agressive than that.

Now, I grew up in New York, so I'm legally entitled to complain. Complaining itself isn't horrible. When things are going badly, you need the cathartic effect of complaining to just air it out. Or, the person's got some other issues going on and complaining about work is 'safe'. Shoot, sometimes they're just the voice of the rest of the team and act as a safety valve. If that's the case, let them blow the steam! If it gets too much, then my advice is stop and listen to them! Sometimes, the Complainer complains constantly because they don't know how to affect change and they will calm it down if they know others are willing to listen and act. Other times, they can't deal with reality. If that's the case, put them on the hook for solving problems instead of just raising the issue and they might just learn the reason why everything isn't perfect is because there's just not enough hours in the day. Either way, this is actually a person who can be handled much of the time. 

A subset of Complainers are actually Blamers. Whereas the Complainer is frustrated in someway, the Blamer is usually either afraid of losing their job or has low self esteem. The Complainer can haul a project into the ground because they destroy everyone else's drive. The Blamer shoots the project down by causing friction and division. The Complainer can sometimes be handled easily, the Blamer usually is a lot harder to deal with. The Blamer is usually a Blamer because of a lack of trust that they won't be the first tossed under the bus when it comes along, so you need to work on that trust with them.

The Warrior

Got someone willing to fight it  out for a worthy cause? You've got a potential Warrior. The Warrior is a great asset to have when things are going well because they won't let people derail you. When things are going bad, they are also fighting to "make things better". Hey, they can remember when they stuck to their guns and it worked, so it's got to work again, right? 

The Warrior often gets to a point where they get frustrated and they fight with everyone. That's where the problem starts. They can drive a team apart quite quickly. Sometimes you get lucky though, they get everyone else pulling together because they all hate the Warrior. They also burn a ton of energy fighting and frequently sit and stew when they can't fight for whatever reason. This leads to lost productivity in lots of ways.

Really, the only way to deal with the Warrior that I know of is to come at them head on. Confront them with what they're doing and let them know you don't like it. If they listen, great. If not, you're in trouble. Otherwise, try to deal with them like a Complainer, because they probably are just a more agressive Complainer anyway.

The Pacifist

Worse than the Warrior is the Pacifist. When things are going well, the Pacifist calms people down when they are getting a bit excitable. The problem is that it's not because the Pacifist is a sworn peacemaker. The problem is the Pacifist is afraid of conflict and can't stand when there isn't peace. When it comes to Fight or Flight, they flee. Always. 

The problem is they can create a team situation where no one can air the dirty laundry. When a problem needs to be dealt with that will cause disagreement, as soon as the volume goes up, the Pacifist tries to table the discussion. The sense of repressed feeling builds until no one is talking to one another. No communication makes failure a very short road. If a project is in trouble, you need to deal with problems and sometimes, or oftentimes, there will be disagreement. If you can't get people talking, you won't solve the problems.

A manager who is a Pacifist and not a peace maker can turn a successful project into a failure just by ending every disagreement by declaring it over before everyone who has a point of view can say it. Problems are swept under the carpet and never dealt with until the backlog of problems overwhelms the team. 

Short term, the team needs to figure out how to not punch the Pacifists Fight or Flight button when in a disagreement. Some Pacifists will be able to get over their pacifism if they see the team is able to argue without imploding. Others never will. Work on calm disagreement.

The Defender

You know the Defender. They have their territory and won't let anyone else into it if they can help it. In this way, they can be a bit Lone Wolfish, but the Defender is probably willing to share their territory with someone else who they perceive as having the same project focus. Usually, the obvious place for defenders is as DBAs. Business Analysts and UI designers often can turn into Defenders as well. The short of it is that they probably have some special skill, or special understanding of an area of the application and are afraid to trust anyone with less knowledge than them. Sometimes this also just comes out of pride... They think they did a really good job in building "x" and don't want anyone else messing with their "baby".

Defenders can sometimes be dealt with by requiring anyone who needs to work in the Defender's "territory" to have their work reviewed by the Defender. If they see that it's not the end of the world, they will loosen up. If they find lots of problems, maybe they weren't so wrong!

The Burn Out

Anyone can turn into the Burn Out. You know the Burn Out. They've fought and worked hard, but got nowhere. I once heard a pastor describe burn out this way: "Working hard doesn't cause burn out. Burn out is caused by working hard and not getting anywhere." Now, the Burn Out just coasts if you're lucky. If you're not lucky, the Burn Out can't really do quality work anymore and primarily operate as a bug factory.

Usually, giving them a break from the same old grind is sufficient to snap them out of it. Vacation can help acute Burn Outs, but worn in chronic Burn Outs probably need re-tasking. Even a week of re-tasking can sometimes help dramatically. Or, shake up the project in other ways.

Overall, Burn Out is usually a condition, not a personality type. A change of pace, scenery or a breather can remedy the condition. 

All Mouth, No Ears

I've saved this one for last because unlike the rest, this is a real project killer. All Mouth and No Ears is that decision maker who has the plan and doesn't mind telling you. The problem is that they won't listen to anyone else. When contradictory evidence comes up, they raise the reality-denial-bubble and pretend it will go away.

This is a big problem when this manifests in management and stakeholders. The team can scream til they're blue in the face that the deadlines are unreasonable, but they will still find themselves committed to the same death march. In fairness, often this manifests due to the downhill nature of pressure and may not be avoidable in that instance.
A phrase to look out for is "This project is too important to fail." You are dealing with All Mouth, No Ears. In this case, they will just try throwing more people, working longer hours, etc, etc even when alternatives are presented. "This project is too important to fail" often leads to singleminded-ness. I'm here to tell you that every time I've heard that, the project failed.

What to do? Initially, fight the battle. I would not focus on just shouting about them trying to shove 10 pounds into a 5 pound sack. I would seriously recommend trying to find an alternate route or a minimum route. There may be some gold plating someone is trying to inject. Get down to essentials, and it may be achievable.

If you can't win it, then either resign yourself to taking the paychecks or get another job. Ultimately, it's their money, they can do what they want. Your responsibility is to advise. To do otherwise is unprofessional. It's well within your rights to refuse to death march, but the right way to do that is to not sabotage the project. Sometimes, you're just being nervous and things will work out. However, your resume is up to date, right?

Firing in the Dark

Now before you think I'm being a snob, I'm sure I fit into a couple of the categories above when things go bad. So do you. What is important is to realize what's happening and you can redirect the strengths of yourself and others back into a positive direction.

I once posted a comment on InfoQ  containing this little rule of thumb...

CMM and its ilk are designed to minimize harm by bad behaviors and less skilled people, whereas an Agile methodology seeks to empower its people. CMM=minimize risk, Agile=maximize productivity.

The short of it is that when you have a team you can't really trust, you need to be heavier handed. I hope that lack of trust is just that there's less experience and folks need more guidance. Otherwise, why are they still around? I don't think this means waterfall type methodologies, but I do think you need to be, umm, agile in how you approach how light or heavyweight a process you use depending on relative skill level of the team.

Above all, don't treat people like machines. Treat them as individuals and you may get lucky. Most people in development actually want to be contributors. They want to reap what they sow. Make sure they can, and you will even be able to be successful when things do fail. At the very least, being able to say you gave it your best shot is worth something. 


A last line disclaimer... I'm up way too late typing this. Some of this may not make much sense, so comment or private message me. I'm not afraid to revise. If I've offended you, I have no intention of doing so. I'm sure something I've written will hit close to the mark for some. As I said earlier, your strengths often dictate how you react when things go wrong. As such, if I am hitting close to the mark, I'm probably speaking as much to your strengths as weaknesses. We're all human. Failure is our normal state!
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